2012年4月14日 星期六

I wish with all my heart is that my death serves a purpose——《破曉之海》(Calm At Sea)


  二戰時德軍佔領法國期間,三名年輕共產黨員暗殺了一名德國士官,維希政府抓不到兇手,希特拉竟下令維希政府,要其自行挑選一百五十名法國青年囚犯處決,以作警誡及報復。殘酷且荒謬,德國名導演霍克舒倫杜夫(Volker Schlöndorff)的新作《破曉之海》(Calm At Sea,2011)講的正是這一段歷史︰
  霍克舒倫杜夫自言本片是根據恩斯容格(Ernst Jünger)的備忘錄《人質問題》(On the Hostage Question)寫成的,那是他在德軍佔領法國期間搶斃法國平民的報告,導演主要選取其中提到的青年紀莫基(Guy Môquet)描寫,他死時年僅十七歲,因曾參與共產青年運動而被維希政府囚禁,雖然失去自由,但導演極力刻劃他對愛情的追求與直面死亡的勇氣,批評納粹的殘暴不仁,寫得既冷靜又憐憫,非常難得。此外導演也花了不少篇幅,敘述納粹德軍與維希政府處理此事的態度,帶出兩者的複雜關係。維希政府雖聽命於納粹,但終究是法國血脈,不少官員與執行人員被逼挑選法國青年赴死時,其實也是萬般無奈,無法抗命,只能消極接受,例如只奉命交出政治犯名冊卻無論如何不肯挑選處決名單,人性由此可見。恩斯容格在本片中也有登場,他是個很有爭議的德國作家,二戰期間他服役軍中在巴黎負責行政工作,有法西斯傾向,卻又因反納粹立場知名;他在巴黎結交了不少文化界名人,如影片中他就說要和著名法國導演薩沙吉特里(Sacha Guitry)午膳,行事頗有紳士氣息,後來他寫《人質問題》,就表現出他對亡者的同情。霍克舒倫杜夫讀電影前是在巴黎修讀政治經濟學的,對兩國人民戰時的各種態度應有一定研究吧。
本片後段著力描寫一名不願執行死刑的年輕德國步槍兵。這士兵與莫基年紀相差不遠,他熱愛和平,不願殺人,但最終也得從命行刑,這就是戰爭的可怖。這士兵啟發自諾貝爾文學獎得主波爾(Heinrich Böll)早期小說《士兵的遺產》(A Soldier's Legacy,1948),他懷疑自己是否行刑隊的「正確人選」,但上司始終不接納他的退出要求,導演表示「這種質疑在當時德軍是容許的,但極少人提出來,亦極少人抗命」,儘管波爾的故事是虛構的,但與真有其人的紀莫基並置,則可有所對比,呈現出殺人者與被殺者面對死亡時的不同態度——人皆不欲死,然而人總有一死,如何面對自己的死亡與別人的死亡,是所有文明的終極問題。人命可貴,人性可敬,是不該由獨裁者或一小撮人決定生死的。如此沉重題材,導演處理得非常簡潔,沒有拖戲;結尾難免傷感,但不煽情也不壓抑,就如那數十個明知要赴死的囚犯般冷靜面對,很不容易。莫基之死牽動了無數人的反德情緒,後來成為法國抵抗運動的象徵,五年前薩爾科齊(Nicolas Sarkozy)更要求全國中學以莫基的遺書作為教材,引發了一段政治爭議;舒倫杜夫則頗淡化莫基的法國共產青年組織的背景,不太考究其政治理念,只將他還原為一個無辜慘死的青年描寫。政客與藝術家,心眼果然不同。

紀莫基的遺書︰

  My darling Mummy, my adored brother, my much loved Daddy, I am going to die! What I ask of you, especially you Mummy, is to be brave. I am, and I want to be, as brave as all those who have gone before me. Of course, I would have preferred to live. But what I wish with all my heart is that my death serves a purpose. I didn't have time to embrace Jean. I embraced my two brothers Roger and Rino . As for my real brother, I cannot embrace him, alas! I hope all my clothes will be sent back to you. They might be of use to Serge, I trust he will be proud to wear them one day. To you, my Daddy to whom I have given many worries, as well as to my Mummy, I say goodbye for the last time. Know that I did my best to follow the path that you laid out for me. A last adieu to all my friends, to my brother whom I love very much. May he study hard to become a man later on. Seventeen and a half years, my life has been short, I have no regrets, if only that of leaving you all. I am going to die with Tintin, Michels. Mummy, what I ask you, what I want you to promise me, is to be brave and to overcome your sorrow. I cannot put any more. I am leaving you all, Mummy, Serge, Daddy, I embrace you with all my child's heart. Be brave! Your Guy who loves you.

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